Three Aspects of Environmental Factors Affecting Soil Moisture
In our measurement and study of soil moisture, we used soil moisture detectors to accurately measure soil moisture in different regions and found that elevation, soil, slope direction, slope position, slope type, and other objective factors in different regions will cause soil moisture The effect of difference. In scientific research, in addition to the objective factors of the soil itself, all other factors that affect soil moisture are collectively referred to as environmental factors.
Environmental factors have dynamic variability in time and space and regional spatial differences. For example, there are daily changes in temperature, seasonal changes during the year, interannual changes, latitude changes, and altitude changes. Precipitation changes include rain intensity, rain patterns, rainfall duration, regional changes, seasonal changes, and interannual changes. There are many influencing factors such as topography and solar radiation. These factors are dynamic, and interact with other factors, making their effects on soil moisture extremely complex.
The environmental factors mainly affect the soil moisture status from three aspects.
The first aspect is the condition of water recharge that affects the soil. Water recharge is not only related to the nature of precipitation itself, but under the same rainfall conditions, the topography, surface vegetation status, and land preparation measures are not the same. This kind of impact factor influences the recharge situation through two ways, that is, changing the residence time of the ultra-osmotic flow on the soil surface and changing the infiltration environment of the soil. Under the condition of constant infiltration rate, the longer the surface water retention time, the better the water recharge condition; the infiltration environment includes the surface water flow velocity, temperature, water turbidity, and surface water depth during infiltration, etc., by changing the soil. The infiltration environment then affects the infiltration rate of the soil in order to achieve the purpose of changing the water supply.
The second aspect is to change the infiltration and storage capacity of the soil itself. For example, farming measures, land preparation measures, types of land use, and the status of surface vegetation all alter or change the physical properties and infiltration performance of the soil to varying degrees.
The third aspect is to change the level of soil consumption. The spatial-temporal differences of environmental factors profoundly affect the moisture loss pathways such as soil moisture leakage, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. It also includes direct and indirect effects on two levels, such as ground cover reduction, evaporation, plant root fracture increase, and deep leakage. Such as a direct role, the environmental factors indirectly affect the loss of soil moisture by changing the soil physical properties or structural conditions, such as granule structure, non-capillary porosity, crusts and tight plough bottom.
In summary, the spatial and temporal dynamic variability of soil moisture and the spatial and temporal differences of environmental factors determine the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture. The spatial-temporal difference of soil moisture is the result of the interaction of various environmental factors on multiple scales. The effects of these factors on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of soil moisture show significant spatial changes and temporal variations.
For keeping the food safety, there is a very strick hygiene standard for poultry processing plant , especially the employee's personal health management, and hygiene control.
First: Have to establish employee's personal health records for HR department.
Second: personal hygiene control
1, according to the training plan for employees of personal hygiene and food safety education and training, new factory staff should focus on systematic training, the assessment of qualified, can mount guard. Training and assessment results should be recorded.
2, employees should develop good personal hygiene habits, do wash hands frequently, and frequently cut nails, take a bath, change clothes frequently, often barber, do not spit everywhere, litter.
3, staff work, unified the trousers, it is forbidden to wear slippers, sandals and other types of open toe shoes; prohibit lipstick, makeup, perfume, nail polish, wearing any jewelry, watches etc.;
4. Smoking, eating, playing, running or chasing slapstick are forbidden in the production area.
5, Staff enter the workshop may not bring anything which nothing to do with the production of goods, first changing shoes, changing overalls, wearing a work cap, work clothes, hats should be dressed neatly, hair must not be exposed outside the coat.
6, Staff hand should be kept clean, and before entering the processing site, after the toilet or hand pollution,washing hand immediately.
6.1 Hand washing disinfection procedures:
A: rinse, rinse with water to scrub, washing hand with liquid disinfectant soak for 20 seconds, rinse and drying
B: rinse, liquid soap scrub, rinse, spray drying, 75% alcohol scrub disinfection
Note: short sleeved overalls should be washed to the elbow
6.2 Employee hands should be kept clean and must be cleaned and disinfected during the production process:
A: after going to the bathroom;
B; after disposing of waste;
C: return to work prior to leaving the work area or having nothing to do with production;
D: before touching the product;
E: after touching other parts of the body that are not clean or unclean;
F: enter workshop and work continuously for 2 hours before start;
G: employees who have direct contact with food must wash hands and disinfect every 1 hours.
7, before entering the workshop, the bottom of shoes and shoes should be soaked and disinfected in the shoes disinfectant pad before entering the workshop.
8, The supervisor inspect labors in the process : hat, masks, shoe wearing, wearing is according to the specification, the hair is exposed; whether the hand hygiene compliance, the nail should not exceed 0.5mm long; if anyone injured posts are sick posts and so on.
9, the production process of contact with the finished products must wear disposable gloves, gloves should be intact, no damage, impermeable, after hand contaminated, must wash hands disinfection procedures according to the above-mentioned re wash hands. In the work process, packaging personnel must be every 2 hours with 75% alcohol disinfection products and processing the opponent; personnel due to operational reasons, contact exposed of the finished product, every 1 hours with 75% alcohol disinfector.
10, During the production period is not allowed to answer the phone (supervisor, foreman, except) where there is a special need to consult their superiors, call replying have to be outside of production area, after reply the call, the first thing is wash hand before back to work.
Personal clothing and goods
11 Staff changed clothes is leave in locker room, not allow enter the the processing room without working clothes; or not allowed wear working clothes go outside, pocket and other personal items are stored in locaker room.
12, Wash and disinfect hands after going to the bathroom, with working clothes, hats, shoes is not allowed goes into bathroom, all must change before and after.
13, non production personnel (ie inspection, management personnel, etc.) and all other people non equivalent to the production is not allowed goes into the workshop
Employee health requirements
1, employees should participate in the annual health examination, inspection qualified to post. Prohibited examination without appointment. Persons suffering from dysentery, typhoid, hepatitis and other infectious diseases of the digestive tract (including pathogen carriers), active tuberculosis, suppurative or exudative skin disease and other disease incompatible with food hygiene, found an immediate dismissal or discouraging.
2, people suffering from respiratory diseases (such as colds, cough), minor can wear masks, but not in direct contact with food; in severe cases, the supervisor or leader to arrange the rest, heal before returning to work.
3, If staff hand's wound , only after dressing wearing disposable gloves can be arranged in direct contact with food; if the wound is deep, the supervisor or leader have to arrange him rest, and heal before returning to work.
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