Underground mining and dressing equipment, the current mining depth is generally 300 ~ 800m, and individual to reach more than 1000m. The development method, according to the topography of the deposit and the ore body shape, scale and burial depth, etc., usually adopts four methods: shaft development, flat development, joint development and inclined well. Main mine development methods:
Hujiayu mine south brook pit and paulownia ditch pit in the mountains of copper ore are made of flat hole, shaft jointly developing; Grate ditch mine 669m elevation above flat hole chute to open up, 669m or less flat hole blind shaft development; Tongkuangyu mine uses Pingyi, slippery shaft and auxiliary shaft are jointly developed.
The Fenghuang Mountain of the Tongling Copper Mine is developed by a single mixed shaft; Tongguanshan is developed by using shafts, inclined shafts, blind shafts and peaceful concrete. The Tonglushan III and V ore bodies of the copper mine in Daye area are developed by the central shaft of the lower plate; the Chima Mountain is jointly developed by the Pingyi-shaft; the Longjiao Mountain is developed by the Pingyu and the blind shaft; the Fengyan Point uses the lower shaft and Slope road development.
In the copper mines in central Guizhou, the Dongchuan Yinmin mine is jointly developed by Pingyi-Shaft, and the falling snow mines are developed for Pingshuo, chute and auxiliary shafts, and the Kaipingping mine is flat, slippery and auxiliary inclined wells. Shishan and Fengshan of Yimen Copper Mine jointly developed with Pingyi-Shaft. The upper part of Haojiahe Mine in Luding Copper Mine was developed with Pingyi blind inclined shaft, and the middle part was opened with the inclined shaft of the bucket. The upper oxidation zone of Dayao Copper Mine is jointly developed by Pingshuo, chute and auxiliary blind inclined wells. The lower sulfide ore mine is jointly developed with bucket shaft, chute, Shimen and auxiliary blind inclined well.
Jiangxi Dongxiang Copper Mine is jointly developed by main and auxiliary shafts and inclined shafts; the central shaft of Wushan Copper Mine is opened. Liaoning SITU + 250m above the level of the pit with adit develop, + 253m main adit or less, on the plate using flanking mixing shaft development; China Copper Copper centric shaft development; Huanren hole flat copper zinc mine shaft development. Hebei Shouwangfen copper mine, the upper part, that is, the middle section of zero meters (absolute elevation of 500m), is developed by Pingyi slippery well, and the lower part, that is, below the middle section of zero meter, is jointly developed with Pingyi-shaft.
Open pit mining has higher mining efficiency and lower cost than underground mining, but the deposit must have open mining conditions. At present, the number of copper deposits suitable for open-pit mining in China is small, but they are large and extra-large deposits. The pioneering methods are mainly road transport development and joint transportation development. The largest open pit mine is now the southern mountainous area of â€‹â€‹the copper deposit in the Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi. In the 1970s, the scale of Nissan's ore was 10,000 tons. In 1989, it was expanded to a daily capacity of 30,000 tons of ore. The third phase of construction is inherited and expanded. Ability and construction of the Beishan mining area. In 2000, the Fujiawu mining area, another large deposit in Dexing Minefield, will be developed. At that time, Dexing Minefield will become one of the world's super large open-pit copper mines. At present, the Nanshan open-pit mining site adopts automobile transportation and horizontal mining and stripping. In addition, open-pit mining mines include Jiangxi Yongping Copper Mine and Guangdong Shijie Copper Mine. Yongping Mine uses trenching to develop and promote horizontally. The Shijiu mine is transported by car fixed trunk line above -44m.
There are also mineral deposits, first open-pit mining, and then transferred to underground mining. Gansu silver white bow Hill copper plant, Flaming two mines, equal to open up this way. In 1959, the two mines began to open-pit mining, using the wiring of the permanent car roads to return to the upper part, and the lower part of the spiral to open up. The open pit has been closed and transferred to the deep mining ore body.
Our non-ferrous metal surface mining technology and equipment and blasting technology has made considerable improvement. Nowadays, the equipment of large and medium-sized open-pit mines has turned to large-scale and high-speed development, and has reached the level of equipment in the 1980s. Such as the successful development of KY and YZ roller rigs , SQ and KQG high pressure submersible drilling rigs , has achieved product serialization. The domestic 8~12m3 electric shovel has filled the gap of heavy-duty shovel equipment. The SH and CH heavy-duty self-unloading mining vehicles are functioning well, and electric-wheeled vehicles have been produced in batches. New mine gunpowder, blasting equipment and blasting technology have developed rapidly. A variety of non-conducting systems suitable for different types of homework in open pit mines are improving day by day. Many of the products and technologies have reached the level of the world's advanced generation and have been exported abroad.
Because mining technology has improved and strengthened technical governance, there has been a significant improvement in labor productivity. For example, the total labor cost of the open-pit mine of Jiangxi Copper Company was 1653 [t/(äººÂ·a)] in the early 1980s and progressed to 8342t/(personÂ·a) in the 1990s. The Shiji copper mine in Guangdong improved from 2746t/(personÂ·a) in the early 1980s to 4467t/(personÂ·a) in the 1990s. Mineral resources have also been effectively utilized, and the mining loss rate and ore depletion rate have also dropped significantly. The mining loss rate fell from 3.84% in 1990 to 2.33% in 1996.
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